B.ed 1st YEAR [ ES - 331 ]

Answer the following questions in 1500 words total (i.e. each in 500 words).

i) What are the important sources of curriculum evaluation? Discuss the importance of Curriculum evaluation. (500 words)

Introduction :

Evaluation is the process of collecting data on a programme to determine its value or worth with the aim of deciding whether to adopt, reject, or revise the programme. Programmes are evaluated to answer questions and concerns of various parties. The public want to know whether the curriculum implemented has achieved its aims and objectives; teachers want to know whether what they are doing in the classroom is effective; and the developer or planner wants to know how to improve the curriculum product. 

Definitions : 
·        Ornstein and Hunkins (1998) define curriculum evaluation as “a process or cluster of processes that people perform in order to gather data that will enable them to decide whether to accept, change, or eliminate something- the curriculum in general or an educational textbook in particular” (p.320).

·        Worthen and Sanders (1987) define curriculum evaluation as “the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness, or value of a programme, product, project, process, objective, or curriculum” (p.22-23).

·        Gay (1985) argues that the aim of curriculum evaluation is to identify its weaknesses and strengths as well as problems encountered in implementation; to improve the curriculum development process; to determine the effectiveness of the curriculum and the returns on finance allocated.

·        Oliva (1988) defined curriculum evaluation as the process of delineating, obtaining, and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives. The primary decision alternatives to consider based upon the evaluation results are: to maintain the curriculum as is; to modify the curriculum; or to eliminate the curriculum.

Curriculum Evaluation Models

      Several experts have proposed different models describing how and what should be involved in evaluating a curriculum. Models are useful because they help you define the parameters of an evaluation, what concepts to study and the procedures to be used to extract important data. Numerous evaluation models have been proposed but three models are discussed here.

  Context, Input, Process, Product Model (CIPP Model)

            Daniel L. Stufflebeam (1971), who chaired the Phi Delta Kappa National Study Committee on Evaluation, introduced a widely cited model of evaluation known as the CIPP (context, input, process and product) model. The approach when applied to education aims to determine if a particular educational effort has resulted in a positive change in school, college, university or training organisation. A major aspect of the Stufflebeam’s model is centred on decision making or an act of making up one’s mind about the programme introduced. For evaluations to be done correctly and aid in the decision making process, curriculum evaluators have to :
  • first  delineate what is to be evaluated and determine what information that has to be collected (eg. how effective has the new science programme has been in enhancing the scientific thinking skills of children in the primary grades)
  • second is to obtain or collect the information using selected techniques and methods (eg. interview teachers, collect test scores of students); 
  • third is to provide or make available the information (in the form of tables, graphs) to interested parties. To decide whether to maintain, modify or eliminate the new curriculum or programme, information is obtained by conducting the following 4 types of evaluation: context, input, process and product 

Stufflebeam’s model of evaluation relies on both formative and summative evaluation to determine the overall effectiveness a curriculum programme Evaluation is required at all levels of the programme implemented.
a)  Context Evaluation (What needs to be done and in what context)?
            This is the most basic kind of evaluation with the purpose of providing a rationale for the objectives. The evaluator defines the environment in which the curriculum is implemented which could be a classroom, school or training department. The evaluator determines needs that were not met and reasons why the needs are not being met. Also identified are the shortcomings and problems in the organisation under review (eg. a sizable proportion of students in secondary schools are unable to read at the desired level, the ratio of students to computers is large, a sizable proportion of science teachers are not proficient to teach in English). Goals and objectives are specified on the basis of context evaluation. In other words, the evaluator determines the background in which the innovations are being implemented.
            The techniques of data collection would include observation of conditions in the school, background statistics of teachers and interviews with players involve in implementation of the curriculum.

    b) Input Evaluation (How should it be done?)
            is that evaluation the purpose of which is to provide information for determining how to utilise resources to achieve objectives of the curriculum. The resources of the school and various designs for carrying out the curriculum are considered. At this stage the evaluator decides on procedures to be used. Unfortunately, methods for input evaluation are lacking in education. The prevalent practices include committee deliberations, appeal to the professional literature, the employment of consultants and pilot experimental projects.

    c) Process Evaluation (Is it being done?) is the provision of periodic feedback while the curriculum is being implemented.

d) Product Evaluation (Did it succeed?) or outcomes of the initiative. Data is collected to determine whether the curriculum managed to accomplish it set out achieve (eg. to what extent students have developed a more positive attitudes towards science). Product evaluation involves measuring the achievement of objectives, interpreting the data and providing with information that will enable them to decide whether to continue, terminate or modify the new curriculum. For example, product evaluation might reveal that students have become more interested in science and are more positive towards the subject after introduction of the new science curriculum. Based on this findings the decision may be made to implement the programme throughout the country.

Instrumentation for Curriculum Evaluation 

No matter what evaluation model is used in evaluating a curriculum, the methods of data collection and the instruments used are more or less similar. The common instruments used in curriculum evaluation are interviews, observations, tests, survey, content analysis and portfolios (record of work or products).

  1.  Questionnaires and Checklists
            When you need to quickly and/or easily get lots of information from people in a non threatening way, questionnaire and checklist are useful data collection techniques. Questionnaires and checklists can complete anonymously and relatively inexpensive to administer. Since data collected is quantitative, it is easy to compare and analyse and can be administered to many people. Massive amount of data can be obtained. It is also easy to design as there are many sample questionnaires already in existence. However, the information obtained may not be accurate as it relies how truthfully subjects respond to the questions. There is also the fear that the wordings used can bias client's responses. Questionnaires are impersonal and since only a sample of subjects are given the instrument, we not get the full story.
   2. Interviews
            Interviews are usually one-on-one situations in which an individual asks questions to which a second individual (which may be a teacher, principal, student, parent) responds. The person asking the questions is called the interviewer while the person giving answers to the questions is called the interviewee. Interviews are used when you want to fully understand someone's impressions or experiences, or learn more about their answers to questionnaires. There are two general types of interviews depending on the extent to which the responses required are unstructured or structured.
            In an unstructured interview, the interviewer does not follow a rigid script and there is a great deal of flexibility in the responses. For example; “Why do you think the recommended textbook for the course is difficult for low ability learners? The teacher responding to such a question will give a variety of reasons. Some of the reasons given may be of a general nature while others may be specific to certain sections of the textbook. This makes the task of keeping track of responses more difficult. The open-endedness of the question will require that the interviewer record all responses and make sense of it later. The advantage of the unstructured interview is that it allows the evaluator to gather a variety of information, especially in relation to the interviewee’s knowledge, beliefs or feelings toward a particular situation.
            In a structured interview, the questions asked usually require very specific responses. For example, “Is the recommended textbook difficult for low ability learners because: 
a) there is too much content; 
b) the language used is beyond the comprehension of low ability learners, 
c) or there are too few examples and illustrations. 
Regardless of which type of interview is used, evaluators should ensure that each question is relevant for its intended purpose. In the end, the data must be translated into a form that can be analysed and this has to be dome carefully to preserve accuracy and to maintain the sense of the data. The advantage of interviews is that it can get a full range and depth of information and it develops a relationship with teachers and students and it is more flexible. However, interview can take much time, can be hard to analyze and compare, can be costly and interviewer can bias client's responses.
3.. Observations
            To gather accurate information about how a program actually operates, particularly about processes. In other words to view operations of a program as they are actually occurring. For example, can the people involved adapt to events as they occur.
4. Documents
When we want impressions of how a programme operates without interrupting the programme; we can review the memos, minutes, etc  to get a comprehensive and historical information about the implementation of the programme. However, we should be quite clear about what looking for as there may be a load of documents 

Reference :

  • Ornstein, A. and Hunkins, F. Curriculum: Foundations, principle and      issues. (1998). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Chapter 10: Curriculum      implementation.

  • Sowell, E. (2000). Curriculum: An integrative introduction. Upper Saddle       River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Chapter 1: Overview of curriculum processes and       products.

ii) Discuss how you will use probing skills while teaching in the Classroom with a help of a suitable example?

Introduction :

           The subject of classroom questioning often begin by invoking Socrates. Researchers and other writers concerned with questioning techniques seem to want to remind us that questioning has a long and venerable history as an educational strategy. And indeed, the Socratic method of using questions and answers to challenge assumptions, expose contradictions, and lead to new knowledge and wisdom is an undeniably powerful teaching approach.
                  In addition to its long history and demonstrated effectiveness, questioning is also of interest to
researchers and practitioners because of its widespread use as a contemporary teaching technique.
Research indicates that questioning is second only to lecturing in popularity as a teaching method and
that classroom teachers spend anywhere from thirty-five to fifty percent of their instructional time
conducting questioning sessions.

Definition :

A question is any sentence which has an interrogative form or function. In classroom settings,
teacher questions are defined as instructional cues or stimuli that convey to students the content elements
to be learned and directions for what they are to do and how they are to do it.

The present review focuses on the relationship between teachers' classroom questioning behaviors and a variety of student outcomes, including achievement, retention, and level of student participation.This means that certain other subtopics within the general area of questioning are excluded from the present analysis. It does not deal, for example, with the effects of textual questions or test questions, and it is only incidentally concerned with methods used to impart study skills, including questioning strategies, to students.

What are the purposes of teachers’ classroom questions? A variety of purposes emerge from analysis
of the literature, including:

* To develop interest and motivate students to become actively involved
in lessons
* To evaluate students’ preparation and check on homework or seatwork
* To develop critical thinking skills and inquiring attitudes
* To review and summarize previous lessons
* To nurture insights by exposing new relationships
* To assess achievement of instructional goals and objectives
* To stimulate students to pursue knowledge on their own

These purposes are generally pursued in the context of classroom recitation, defined as a series of
teacher questions, each eliciting a student response and sometimes a teacher reaction to that response.
Within these recitations, students follow a series of steps (consciously or unconsciously) in order to
produce responses to the questions posed. These steps include:

* Attending to the question
* Deciphering the meaning of the question
* Generating a covert response (i.e., formulating a response in one's mind)
* Generating an overt response; and often
* Revising the response (based on teacher probing or other feedback) 

Probing skills while teaching in the classroom :

In 1956 Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists engaged in identifying the levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. The taxonomies they developed included three overlapping domains: the cognitive (intellectual), psychomotor (physical), and affective (attitudes and emotions). Each taxonomy is an organizational strategy in which lower categories are subsumed in higher ones. In the cognitive domain, knowledge, the lowest level in Bloom's taxonomy, must be mastered before comprehension, the second level, can be attempted. In fact, comprehension is an intellectual process that uses knowledge. These six levels have been adapted in formulating school goals, assessing learner progress, and developing questions. Bloom's six cognitive levels range from simple recall or recognition of facts through increasingly more complex and abstract intellectual tasks. The following brief definitions are followed by several sample verbs that reflect the appropriate intellectual activity:
  1. Knowledge: Requires that students recognize or recall information. Remembering is the key intellectual activity. (define, recall, memorize, name, duplicate, label, review, list, order, recognize, repeat, reproduce, state)
  2. Comprehension: Requires that students demonstrate sufficient understanding to organize and arrange material mentally; demands a personal grasp of the material. (translate, explain, classify, compare, contrast, describe, discuss, express, restate in other words, review, select)
  3. Application: Requires that students apply information, demonstrate principles or rules, and use what was learned. Many, but not all, educators believe that this is the first of the higher-level thought processes. (apply, classify, solve, use, show, diagram, demonstrate, record, translate, illustrate, choose, dramatize, employ, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, write)
  4. Analysis: Educators agree that this and all the following categories require higher-level thinking skills. Analysis requires students to identify reasons, uncover evidence, and reach conclusions. (identify motives and causes, draw conclusions, determine evidence, support, analyze, deduce, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, justify, distinguish, examine, experiment)
  5. Synthesis: Requires that students perform original and creative thinking. Often many potential answers are possible. (write or arrange an original composition, essay or story, make predictions, solve problems in an original way, design a new invention, arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan)
  6. Evaluation: Requires that students judge the merit of an idea, solution to a problem, or an aesthetic work. These questions might also solicit an informed opinion on an issue. (judge, value, evaluate, appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose, compare, defend, estimate, rate, select)
While Bloom's taxonomy has facilitated gauging the level of teacher questions, sorting out the significance of these levels is more problematic. A meta-analysis of higher-order questions by Gordon Samson, Bernadette Strykowski, Thomas Weinstein, and Herbert Walberg, among others, demonstrated only a weak link between higher-order question asking and higher-order thinking. Other researchers have discovered that lower-order questions can be as effective as higher-order ones. Factors such as student background, curricular goals, and the skill of the teacher can be influential in determining which level of question is most effective. Studies suggest that teachers may be more skilled in asking lower-order questions, that curricular goals stressing mastery and memory of content may be achieved more efficiently with lower-level questions, and that many lower-socioeconomic class students seemed to perform better with lower-level questions than higher-order ones. Other studies indicate that even when a teacher asks a higher-order question, students may answer at a lower level. The clarity and specificity of the teacher's question and the background knowledge of students are two reasons why higher-order questions may elicit lower-level responses. Determining what steps educators can take to promote more sophisticated and challenging student thought processes is a central concern of future research.
Beyond the taxonomy, William Wilen and other researchers have categorized several types of questions. Probing questions are follow-up questions asked after a student responds to the initial question. Probing questions require a student to think deeper than the original response, and to integrate new material. One type of probing is the Socratic question, which originated with the Greek philosopher whose skillful inquiry helped students recognize gaps and contradictions in their understanding. Teachers sometimes structure questions specifically for the purpose of diagnosing a student's needs and for bridging a learning gap, a questioning strategy called scaffolding. The term derives from the construction industry, where scaffolding is used to support a notyet-completed building. Divergent questions often provide unique student insights, encourage the exploration of many possibilities, and do not produce a single correct answer. Affective questions concern attitudes, values and feelings of students, and although they reside in another domain, they are related to the levels described in the cognitive taxonomy. Defining and categorizing types of questions will likely continue in the years ahead.
Example for Classroom Questioning :

Based on the foregoing findings from the research on classroom questioning, the following
recommendations are offered:

* Incorporate questioning into classroom teaching/learning practices.
* Ask questions which focus on the salient elements in the lesson; avoid questioning students about extraneous matters.
* When teaching students factual material, keep up a brisk instructional pace, frequently posing lower cognitive questions.
* With older and higher ability students, ask questions before (as well as after) material is read and studied.
* Question younger and lower ability students only after material has been read and studied.
* Ask a majority of lower cognitive questions when instructing younger and lower ability students. Structure these questions so that most of them will elicit correct responses.
* Ask a majority of higher cognitive questions when instructing older and higher ability students.
* In settings where higher cognitive questions are appropriate, teach students strategies for drawing inferences.
* Keep wait-time to about three seconds when conducting recitations involving a majority of lower cognitive questions.
* Increase wait-time beyond three seconds when asking higher cognitive questions.
* Be particularly careful to allow generous amounts of wait-time to students perceived as lower ability.
* Use redirection and probing as part of classroom questioning and keep these focused on salient elements of students' responses.
* Avoid vague or critical responses to student answers during recitations.
* During recitations, use praise sparingly and make certain it is sincere, credible, and directly connected to the students' responses.

Detailed instructions for teaching students to draw inferences is outside the scope of this paper. However, the model offered by Pearson (1985) does provide some basic steps which can help students make connections between what they know and what they are seeking to learn. Pearson suggests that teachers complete all the steps in this process by way of demonstration, then gradually shift responsibility for all but the first step to the students.

1. Ask the inference question.
2. Answer it.
3. Find clues in the text to support the inference.
4. Tell how to get from the clues to the answer (i.e., give a line of reasoning).

Better preservice training in the art of posing classroom questions, together with inservice training to sharpen teachers’ questioning skills, have potential for increasing students’ classroom participation and achievement. Increasing wait-time and the incidence of higher cognitive questions, in particular, have considerable promise for improving the effectiveness of classroom instruction.
Conclusion :
Research on the relationship between the cognitive level of teachers’ questions and the achievement of their students has proved frustrating to many in the field of education, because it has not produced definitive results. Quite a number of research studies have found higher cognitive questions superior to lower ones, many have found the opposite, and still others have found no difference. The same is true of research examining the relationship between the cognitive level of teachers’ questions and the cognitive level of students’ responses. The conventional wisdom that says, “ask a higher level question, get a higher level answer,” does not seem to hold.
Reference :

  • Winne, P.H. “Experiments Relating Teachers’ Use of Higher Cognitive Questions to Student
          Achievement.” Review of Educational Research 39(1979): 13-50.
  • Reviews 13 studies of the relative effects of higher and lower cognitive questions on student
          achievement. Concludes that there are no significant achievement differences between the two
  • Wixson, K.K. “Questions About a Test:What you Ask About Is What Children Learn.” Reading Teacher 37(1983): 287-93.
  • Reviews two studies of the relationship between the kinds of questions students are asked and the
         information they are later able to recall about passages they have read. Fifth graders in both studies had
         the best recall regarding story content about which they had previously been queried.


iii) List some common problems faced in the classrooms and suggest the possible way to effectively manage the problems.

Introduction :

The Classroom Environment Virtually all of us have little to no control over how many students we must each. However, we do have control over the classroom environment in which they learn. This is very important, Since this environment affects how well your students can learn. Close your eyes and imagine yourself as a new teacher who is assigned to teach a class containing 60 or more students. After the initial shock, or maybe in response to it, what questions might you ask yourself? Most likely the first question that would come to mind is “How am I going to manage them all?” Actually, this question highlights one of the most critical aspects of working in large classes, namely, managing the classroom’s environment so that it is a comfortable space in which to teach and learn. The classroom environment encompasses the physical environment – including learning resources for lessons – as well as the psycho-social environment; for instance, using ways to promote learning as a community to reduce the feeling of crowdedness and to deal effectively with  misbehaviour. physical and psycho-social environments can make the difference between a calm and functioning classroom and a classroom in chaos.

List some common problems faced in the classrooms :

As a Teacher, I was terrified that I would not know how to handle students who were older than I. I wanted very much to hear "for instances" from other Teacher

Some common conduct issues identified by Gerald Amada in his research for Coping With Misconduct in the College Classroom (1999) are listed in the table below. In discussing what constitutes problematic classroom behaviors with colleagues, I have decided to add to Dr. Amada’s list. While his approach does not necessarily align with learner-centered teaching, his work does cover many sticky issues of navigating the uncomfortable situations that occur from time to time and suggests several strategies for working with student services and other administrators to remedy situations.

Issues / Solution Suggestions Table

Issue Solution
1. Undermining the instructor’s authority This is tricky as it speaks to "attitude." A student might belittle the instructor or engage in a battle of the wills. This student would need to be privately told that their attitude was confrontational and asked how this might be resolved mutually.
"Be careful not to read most questions about content, interpretation, or assignments as a challenge of authority. Acting as it they are not, even when you suspect they are, can convey a sense of confidence and control. Sometimes merely assuring the student, while smiling, that you have indeed reflected on this issue at length and that they too will understand soon why the information or the assignment is valuable diffuses the situation. I may even want to encourage them to ask the question again at a later date if necessary."
2. Leaving class too frequently Camps are divided as to whether or not students should ask for permission to leave for bathroom breaks or wait for a break in the class. I don’t require my students to limit their bathroom breaks or ask permission, however, this is contentious for some faculty when breaks are taken too frequently. I might privately ask the student if everything is OK so that they know that you are concerned by their behavior. Don’t assume disrespect – it might be a bladder infection or some other physical problem.
3. "Spacing Out" or Sitting With Back to Instructor If this is a repeated problem, students need to know that their non-verbal behavior is perceived as disinterest. I might ask them after class if they need a more comfortable seat. Some students are extremely shy and it might take half of the semester before they open up enough to make sustained eye contact or face the instructor completely. Remember also that sustained eye contact is a culturally dictated practice that might not be feasible for some students.
4. Poor hygiene (possible cultural considerations) Poor hygiene, too much perfume, cigarette odor or other strong odors can be distracting or even nauseating to students. The cause for the odor might be culturally based in bathing preferences between cultures. This can be a real problem for some Teacher while others will never encounter the dilemma. I suggest letting the offending student know that in close quarters, some students have issues with strong smell. It might be suggested that for the course (not their outside of class lives) that the odor be masked in some way.
5. Verbal or physical threats Verbal or physical threats are serious matters. They are discussed in detail by experts in the field in "Handling Crisis."
As a general rule consult professional experts for assistance immediately.
6. Gum, Food, Pagers, and Cell Phone Disruption If decided upon by class, consequences for breaking this policy might range from the loss of participation points to the offender having to present on a topic of interest to the class. Some instructors allow pagers and cells to be on the vibrate setting as long as they are attended to at the break rather than used when it interrupts the class. Instructors need to abide by this rule as well and allow for at least one mistake per student as accidents do happen from oversight. The idea here is to prevent habitual disruption from gum popping and phones ringing.
7. Monopolizing Discussions This is common but manageable. Many students are excited and talkative so it might be good to give them a few class periods to settle in. However, if it’s evident right away that this is a trend, it’s best to ask them to stay after class.I might approach them initially by saying that you are pleased with the amount of enthusiasm they have for discussion but were hoping that they have suggestions for getting the other class members equally involved. The student will most likely get your drift with minimal humiliation.
8. Sleeping in class Sleeping in class is usually considered rude. Most faculty believe it should not be tolerated and is best curbed up front by waking a sleeping student and asking them to step outside with you. Once there faculty often tell students that it’s best for the rest of the class if they return when they are awake enough to be an active participant. This occurs from time to time and you obviously are the one to choose lenience or punitive action. If it’s one of your more regularly involved students, perhaps give them an option of an extra credit research assignment they can bring to our next class period covering the subject matter they missed while they were sleeping.
An alternative approach is to assume that the student does not feel well, was up most of the night with a sick child, or has some other condition that results in sleepiness when still for long periods of time. I might simply choose to wake the student and ask them if they are feeling alright. To pull this off I need to approach it with true concern for the student's health and well being. Most of the time, student's are so embarrased and so appreciative of our genuine concern that they don't let it happen again.
Encourage students to actively participate, take notes (explain that this is helpful to their learning as it stimulates memory in the brain) and in particularly long classes break up the session with activities or paired conversations about a topic to ensure that students stay engaged. Students don't learn much from listening, so remember that the more they "experience" the learning process the more I really teaching.
9. Repeated Tardiness: There should be clear parameters set around this issue up front – either in your syllabus or in the class decided norms. Stick to your guns on the policy. Some fair policies might include 3 tardies equals one absence. It might be best to discuss this with students individually; some are habitually late because they are dependant on bus routes or other drivers for transportation to school.
10. Refusal to Participate or Speak We cannot force students to speak in class nor participate in group projects. This can be addressed and become a win-win situation by either giving the student alternative options to verbal participation (unless it’s a speech class) or simply carefully coaxing some response out of them and praising whatever minimal effort you receive from them. Remember, some students are terrified to be in a class setting –especially if there are round tables rather than desks – allowing for little anonymity.
11. Sexual Innuendo, Flirting, or Other Inappropriate Suggestion This behavior should be curbed as soon as it occurs. It’s never comfortable to tell a student that they aren’t being appropriate and if you are uncomfortable, a short, positive e-mail or phone call might suffice. our response should be not judgmental and I might discuss it with your department chair or faculty mentor before broaching it with our student.
12. Sharing/Copying Work In some cultures, students work together to produce homework. It may come as a shock to these students that they cannot submit identical work. This may also come as a surprise to couples, parent-child, siblings, or close friends. Be careful to give thought to how you will handle this before I encounter it and react as if it were intentional cheating. This can also occur when the class does a great deal of group work. Make sure I are clear about what is individual vs. group work in our assignments.
13. Plagiarism or Lying Depending upon the class and the student’s prior knowledge of what plagiarism entails, some faculty issue an automatic F for the first instance, then expulsion from the class with a report to the department chair and division dean on a second instance. Most colleges have specific policies. Be sure to know school policy before taking action.

Plagiarism should be outlined in our syllabus with a reference for students to the school catalog for more information.
14. Too Much Chit Chat Give 2-minute chat times for groups or before class begins let them know that I have material to be covered and that their talking isn’t helping I achieve our goals for the class. Know too that some students occasionally translate a word or phrase to a tablemate who might not have as strong an understanding of English, be patient and observant when curbing this behavior.
15. Disrespectful Behavior The reality is that sometimes students just plain won’t like I. I  will find yourself in a conversation with ourself about why they don’t like I and treat I with disrespect. Animosity will perpetuate itself so remember your role and look for a way to positively invite the student to engage more deeply in the class. Perhaps offer them a special task based on a self-disclosed talent; for instance, a student whose hobby is Origami (Japanese paper folding) might lead a lesson on the art of following instructions.

Helping Students Learn to Be school Students

Distributing this list of desirable and undesirable behaviors can serve to avert management issues in that some students simply do not realize that their behavior is negative or disruptive to the instructor or to their classmates.

The following table identifies some common positive and negative behaviors that provide students with a guide for managing themselves as students. I might wish to distribute this list to our class at the time you discuss your syllabus or set class norms as a group. Feel free to modify this list as needed for our students.
Positive Impression Givers Negative Impression Givers
Book on desk, pencil or pens ready Picking face, nose, grooming, knuckle cracking, nail filing or cleaning teeth
Note taking or recording the lecture/class with permission from the instructor Heavy sighs, eye rolling
Ask questions that are appropriate Laughing AT the Teacher rather than WITH the class
Make an effort to maintain eye contact Leaving early without letting the Teacher know ahead of time
Sit where I can see and be attentive Frequent tardiness or absences
Submit assignments on time, ask if there is supplemental material I can explore to better complete our assignments such as video titles or other materials Distracting noises: foot tapping, nail biting, pen twirling/tapping, yawning w/o covering your mouth, mumbling, zipping up bags to indicate you want the class to end, paper tearing, paper toy making, etc.
Help our classmates whenever possible Head on desk to indicate boredom
Make certain I understand assignments when assigned Staring at the clock or our watch
Save announcements about necessary absences for before or after class Skipping assignments and/or breaking assignment policy, handing in shoddy, unstapled, ripped out pages that show no care for the assignment
Refrain from doing other course work or paying bills in class Refer to sexual situations inappropriately in assignments (unless it’s asked for in the assignment such as a human sexuality class)
When using the Internet in class, stay on task rather than surfing for fun Frequently forget text and notebook
Give the Teacher the respect I wish to be treated with Attempt to be class clown inappropriately; a joke here and there is fine, but repetitious clowning is distracting
Don’t interrupt, belittle, or put down fellow students Squinting or face making to show disapproval
Keeping an open mind when issues arise I disagree with. Disagreeing with dignity. Note passing or hand signals to others
Make certain you pay your fees for enrollment and get your text on the first day of class Interrupting the instructor to ask what I missed when I were absent or if I missed anything "important"
Be positive with expectations of success in the course Acting as if the class or topic of discussion is irrelevant or stupid – if I really feel so, drop the class
Know the Teacher’s name and call them only what they prefer to be called – ask if necessary Leaving our belongings where they inconvenience others
Spell the class, instructor, and assignment name correctly on all submitted work Tipping in our chair

 Conclusion :

            Instead, good teachers think about their teaching – all of it, their own classroom behaviour, the plans they have, the activities they use, the backgrounds and experiences of their students, what and if their
students are learning, why and why not. And good teachers do more than think about their teaching; they use whatever means possible to improve upon it. 

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